Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT)

The Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT) by Dr. A. Jean Ayres, considered the “gold standard of testing for evaluating sensory integration and praxis functions” (Susanne Smith Roley, MS, OTR/L), is the most complete and flexible assessment of sensory integration available to occupational therapists. The tests measure the sensory integration processes that underlie learning and behavior. By examining how children organize and respond to sensory input, the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests help pinpoint specific organic problems associated with learning disabilities, emotional disorders, and minimal brain dysfunction. The Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests measure visual, tactile, vestibular, kinesthetic and proprioceptive perception as well as motor performance, including bilateral coordination and praxis. It is composed of 17 subtests. Norms are provided for each test, and are based on a national sample of more than 2,000 children between the ages of 4 years and 8 years, 11 months.

this test is designed to evaluate

Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP)

The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) is a short but comprehensive preschool assessment instrument that helps evaluate young children for mild to moderate developmental delays. It provides a broad overview of a child’s developmental status relative to other children the same age. Designed for children from 2-9 through 5-8 years of age, the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers provides a separate form for each of six age levels. All of the forms evaluate five areas of performance, yielding the following Index Scores—Foundations Index (assesses abilities involving basic motor tasks and the awareness of sensations), Coordination Index (assesses complex gross, fine, and oral motor abilities), Verbal Index (focuses on memory, sequencing, comprehension, association, and expression in a verbal context), Nonverbal Index (examines memory, sequencing, visualization, and the performance of mental manipulations not requiring spoken language), and Complex Tasks Index (measures sensorimotor abilities in conjunction with cognitive abilities that require interpretation of visuospatial information). Test development was based on research involving more than 4,000 children and 800 items to insure a comprehensive determination of developmental status.

Preschooler writing

this test is designed to evaluate

DeGangi-Berk Test of Sensory

Test of Sensory Function in Infants (TSFI)

The Test of Sensory Functions in Infants offers an objective way to determine whether and to what extent an infant has sensory processing deficits. This test helps identify infants with sensory integrative dysfunction–including those at risk for developing learning disabilities as they grow older. It has been standardized for infants between 4-18 months of age. It is an individually administered test and requires simple hands on interactions with the infant.

this test is designed to evaluate

Sensory Processing Measure

The Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) provides a complete picture of children’s sensory functioning at home, at school, and in the community. Recognizing that sensory processing problems often manifest differently in different environments, this set of three integrated rating scales assesses sensory processing including modulation, praxis, and social participation in elementary school children (ages 5-12). Firmly grounded in sensory integration theory, the Sensory Processing Measure provides norm-referenced standard scores for two higher level integrative functions–praxis and social participation–and five sensory systems–visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular functioning. Within each system, it offers descriptive clinical information on processing vulnerabilities, including under- and over-responsiveness, sensory-seeking behavior, and perceptual problems.

The Sensory Processing Measure consists of three forms: Home Form, Main Classroom Form, & School Environments Forms. The Home Form is completed by the child’s parent or home-based care provider. The Main Classroom Form is filled out by the child’s primary classroom teacher. And the School Environments Forms are completed by other school personnel who work with and observe the child. Scores for each of the Home and Main Classroom forms fall into one of three interpretive ranges: Typical, Some Problems, or Definite Dysfunction. In addition, an Environment Difference score permits direct comparison of the child’s sensory functioning at home and at school. The School Environments Forms examine the child’s functioning in six school environments outside of the main classroom—Art Class, Music Class, Physical Education Class, Recess/Playground, Cafeteria, and on the School Bus.  

Sensory Processing Measure - Preschool (SPM-P)

The Preschool edition of the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM-P) provides an early look at overall sensory functioning as well as specific vulnerabilities that can affect learning in children as young as 2 years of age. Appropriate for children 2-5 years old, the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool measures the same functions as the Sensory Processing Measure. Within each sensory system, the items also reveal specific problems, including under- and over-responsiveness, sensory-seeking behavior, and perceptual problems. In addition, the items provide information on the senses of taste and smell. The Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool includes both a Home Form, completed by the parent, and a School Form, completed by the preschool teacher or day care provider. Used together, the two forms provide a comprehensive overview of sensory processing, and they allow users to quickly compare the child’s functioning across settings.

these tests are designed to evaluate


Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2)

The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is the most widely used motor proficiency test used to assess gross and fine motor skills, and is designed for use with children and adolescents ages 4-21. It assesses the motor proficiency of all children and adolescents, ranging from those who are normally developing to those with moderate motor-skill deficits. The Bruininks is comprised of eight subtests, including Fine Motor Precision, Fine Motor Integration, Manual Dexterity, Bilateral Coordination, Balance, Running Speed and Agility, Upper-Limb Coordination, and Strength. From these scores, the Bruininks provides composite scores in four motor areas and one comprehensive measure of overall motor proficiency. These composites are Fine Manual Control, Manual Coordination, Body Coordination, Strength and Agility, and Total Motor Composite. Norms are based on current U.S. Census data, and clinical validity studies have been conducted with children with high-functioning autism/Asperger’s Disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and mild-to moderate mental retardation.

Miller Function & Participation Scales (M-FUN)

The Miller Function & Participation Scales (M-FUN) uses hands-on functional activities that appeal to children with many items examining children’s development in fine, gross, and visual motor skills. The test is designed for children between the ages 2 years 6 months though 7 years 11 months. There is an individualized workbook for each child to simulate early school activities such as writing, drawing, tracing, and cutting. Included on the test are gross motor activities typical of home and gym activities—jumping, hopping, kicking, etc., and functional, play, and school-based activities that are fun and engaging. Test results are reported as scaled scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents for fine motor, gross motor, and visual motor. Research data includes individuals with mild to severe motor delays. The Miller Function & Participation Scales is engaging for all children, including those with mild, moderate, or severe motor impairment. Children with lower motor-function skills can also participate in test activities.

Oseretsky test of motor proficiency

Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2)

The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2) assesses qualitative and quantitative aspects of motor development in children from birth to 5 years old. It is composed of six subtests assessing motor abilities that develop early in life—Reflexes, Stationary (body control and equilibrium), Locomotion, Object Manipulations, Grasping, and Visual-Motor Integration. The assessment can be administered in 1-2 hours. Using the scores on the subtests, composite scores are computed for Gross Motor skills, Fine Motor skills, and Total Motor skills, and the Peabody can be used to estimate a child’s overall motor competence relative to peers and evaluate fine versus gross motor abilities. Norms are based on a nationally representative sample of more than 2,000 children and are stratified by age.

tests of visual perception

Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), 6th Edition

The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), 6th Edition measures visual-motor integration in children and adults. Backed by decades of research and clinical use, the Beery VMI offers a convenient way to screen for visual-motor deficits that can lead to learning, behavior, and neuropsychological problems. While it is used primarily with young children, the Beery VMI can also be administered to adolescents and adults. The Beery VMI helps assess the extent to which individuals can integrate their visual and motor abilities. The test presents the examinee with drawings of 24 geometric forms, arranged in developmental sequence, from less to more complex. The examinee simply copies these forms in the Test Booklet. There are two supplemental tests–the Beery VMI Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Beery VMI Developmental Test of Motor Coordination. The 6th Edition was standardized, in 2010, on a national sample of 1,737 children aged 2 to 18. Adult norms, collected in 2006, are based on a sample of 1,021 individuals from 19 to 100 years of age.

Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition (MVPT-3)

The Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Third Edition (MVPT-3) assesses an individual’s visual perceptual ability–with no motor involvement needed to make a response. It is especially useful with those who may have learning, motor, or cognitive disabilities. Test norms are based on a nationally representative sample. The test can be used for screening; diagnosis; or research by occupational therapists when they need a quick, reliable, and valid measure of overall visual perceptual ability in children and adults (ages 4 through 70). The Motor-Free Visual Perception Test takes approximately 25 minutes to administer and consists of a visual multiple choice in which the individual is shown a line drawing and is then asked to choose the matching drawing from a set of four on the following plate. Five categories of visual perception are measured–Spatial Relationship, Visual Closure, Visual Discrimination, Visual Memory, and Figure Ground.

Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills, Third Edition (TVPS-3)

The Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills, Third Edition (TVPS-3) is designed for use with individuals ranging in age from 4 through 18. The Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills is used to determine a child’s visual perceptual strengths and weaknesses, and is designed to be used by occupational therapists, and other assessment professionals. It is comprised of the following seven subtests: Visual Discrimination, Visual Memory, Visual-Spatial Relationships, Form Constancy, Visual Sequential Memory, Visual Figure-Ground, and Visual Closure. The Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills utilizes black-and-white designs as stimuli for all of the perceptual tasks. Within each subtest, the items are arranged in a developmental progression and are presented in a multiple-choice format. Item responses are made vocally (by saying the letter of the response choice) or by pointing. The Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills is not timed and takes about 30 to 40 minutes to complete, depending on the age and abilities of the child. The Third Edition also provides new, nationally stratified norms based on data from over 2,000 children.


Print Tool™

The Print Tool™ developed by Jan Z. Olsen, OTR, is a one-on-one formal printing assessment used to evaluate and remediate capital letters, lowercase letters, and numbers. It measures a child’s ability to meet certain benchmark skills by age 6, 7, 8 and older. The Print Tool™ assesses eight basic printing skills that allow targeted remediation strategies to specific problem areas—Memory, Orientation, Placement, Size, Start, Sequence, Control, and Spacing. Many of the strategies and principles utilized are research based. The Print Tool™ is unique and is directly based on the author’s many years of successful practice in evaluating and remediating handwriting problems. This practice is also the foundation for the award-winning, highly respected, Handwriting Without Tears® curriculum developed by Jan Z. Olsen, OTR.

Test of Handwriting Skills, Revised (THS-R)

The Test of Handwriting Skills, Revised (THS-R) assesses a child’s neurosensory integration skills in both manuscript and cursive writing. In addition to examining components of legibility, the Test of Handwriting Skills also assesses writing speed, letter reversal, and case substitutions. It can be used with any of the popular handwriting programs, such as the Palmer, Zaner-Bloser, and D’Nealian. The Test of Handwriting Skills is appropriate for individuals aged 5 to 18. It provides an overall standard score, scaled subtest scores, percentiles, and stanines. Norms are based on a nationally stratified sample of 1,500 individuals.