The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2) is the most widely used motor proficiency test used to assess gross and fine motor skills, and is designed for use with children and adolescents ages 4-21. It assesses the motor proficiency of all children and adolescents, ranging from those who are normally developing to those with moderate motor-skill deficits. The Bruininks is comprised of eight subtests, including Fine Motor Precision, Fine Motor Integration, Manual Dexterity, Bilateral Coordination, Balance, Running Speed and Agility, Upper-Limb Coordination, and Strength. From these scores, the Bruininks provides composite scores in four motor areas and one comprehensive measure of overall motor proficiency. These composites are Fine Manual Control, Manual Coordination, Body Coordination, Strength and Agility, and Total Motor Composite. Norms are based on current U.S. Census data, and clinical validity studies have been conducted with children with high-functioning autism/Asperger’s Disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and mild-to moderate mental retardation.
Miller Function & Participation Scales (M-FUN)
The Miller Function & Participation Scales (M-FUN) uses hands-on functional activities that appeal to children with many items examining children’s development in fine, gross, and visual motor skills. The test is designed for children between the ages 2 years 6 months though 7 years 11 months. There is an individualized workbook for each child to simulate early school activities such as writing, drawing, tracing, and cutting. Included on the test are gross motor activities typical of home and gym activities—jumping, hopping, kicking, etc., and functional, play, and school-based activities that are fun and engaging. Test results are reported as scaled scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents for fine motor, gross motor, and visual motor. Research data includes individuals with mild to severe motor delays. The Miller Function & Participation Scales is engaging for all children, including those with mild, moderate, or severe motor impairment. Children with lower motor-function skills can also participate in test activities.
The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Second Edition (PDMS-2) assesses qualitative and quantitative aspects of motor development in children from birth to 5 years old. It is composed of six subtests assessing motor abilities that develop early in life—Reflexes, Stationary (body control and equilibrium), Locomotion, Object Manipulations, Grasping, and Visual-Motor Integration. The assessment can be administered in 1-2 hours. Using the scores on the subtests, composite scores are computed for Gross Motor skills, Fine Motor skills, and Total Motor skills, and the Peabody can be used to estimate a child’s overall motor competence relative to peers and evaluate fine versus gross motor abilities. Norms are based on a nationally representative sample of more than 2,000 children and are stratified by age.